Em artigo publicado pela Agência CanalEnergia, Nivalde de Castro, Antônio Lima e Guillermo Pereira – respectivamente coordenador, pesquisador e pesquisador associado do GESEL – analisam as aplicações de blockchain em projetos piloto nos setores elétricos europeus, australiano e norte americano. Segundo os autores, “como destacado, há diversas iniciativas sendo realizadas com blockchain no Setor Elétrico, mas existe uma série de desafios para fazer esta tecnologia escalar. A questão da quantidade de energia consumida pela computação que realiza as verificações das transações em blockchain é uma delas, além do tempo de verificação de transações ainda não ser instantâneo”. Eles concluem que “serão necessárias inovações regulatórias para dar suporte e garantia aos novos modelos de negócio que estarão se estruturando via a vis aos negócios vigentes. Por outro lado, pode-se observar, ao nível internacional e em mercados mais liberalizados, o crescente aparecimento de startups adjacentes às empresas do Setor Elétrico, com o foco em aplicações blockchain dedicadas à valorização dos dados disponíveis, cada vez mais granulares e imediatos, sobre consumos, geração distribuída e utilização de infraestrutura”.
(Publicado pela Agência CanalEnergia)
Slides da apresentação dos pesquisadores Max Staib Ramalho, Lorrane Câmara, Patrícia P. Silva, Guillermo Pereira e Guilherme Dantas no evento ICEE 2017: 3rd International Conference on Energy & Environment: bringing together Economics and Engineering. O evento é organizado pela FEP (Faculdade de Economia e Gestão da Universidade do Porto) e pela Escola de Engenharia da Universidade do Minho e acontecerá na “Atmosfera M”, no Porto, em Portugal nos dias 29 e 30 de junho de 2017.
Increasing the share of renewables in electricity consumption has been the focus of energy and climate policies around the world. This motivation has resulted in different approaches across industrialized and developing economies for supporting the diffusion of renewable distributed generation. In this sense, this article compares eight different cases (Belgium, Brazil, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, California, Germany and Portugal) and their policy trajectories in relation to photovoltaic energy deployment, in order to evaluate the drivers of their success rates. More precisely, this study identifies the main incentive policies, evaluates the motivation supporting their adoption and the factors that influence, or ultimately, determine their success, or failure. Much of the discussion surrounding the success of incentive policies for renewable energy technologies has focused on a narrower comparison between specific policies such as feed-in tariffs, net metering, renewable portfolio, tradable certificates, etc. This approach neglects to identify the wider framework of policy instruments that determine the success of a greater diffusion of renewable energy technologies. Thus this paper will offer a broader approach, by identifying a multitude of criteria that will help to identify the underlying causes for the successful expansion of these technologies.
Mitigating climate changes and guaranteeing the security of electricity supply are two of the most important drivers behind the adoption of renewable sources support policies. In the last few years, photovoltaic generation has proven growing dynamism and potential through its decreasing costs and accelerated adoption across many countries. Studies indicate that 96.3% of the gloval PV market depends on support schemes. In this context, the most widespread policies supporting photovoltaic generation are net metering and feed-in tariffs. Regarding net metering, California is an outstanding case, which over the past 20 years has played a leading role in photovoltaic energy policies nationally and internationally. Germany, in turn, has also been an early adopter of feed-in tariffs, and has often been signalled for its success in catapulting the country to the forefront of global photovoltaic installed capacity. Additionally, and following this characterization, the study looks at two “later comers”: Japan and Brazil. Although dissimilar countries, both choose to adopt one of the two policy instruments during the same time period. While Japan, in 2011, chose to implement a feed- in tariff scheme, Brazil in 2012 introduced a net-metering solution. Consequently, we evaluate the policies implemented in these two countries, identifying how they differ, and, consequently, if and how they have incorporated the lessons learned from the pioneering regions. Finally, taking into consideration the different trajectories of photovoltaic energy diffusion in the different cases, this study makes an exploratory assessment of the success of the two incentive schemes and their advantages and disadvantages. There exists an indisputable challenge in comparing the performance of policies across different countries, due their heterogeneity, particularly in regards to their socio-economic configuration. Thus, these limitations are taken into consideration when appraising the success of these incentive policies in the different countries. This demonstrates the importance of having a suitable support structure, which goes beyond individual policy tools.